By: Hector Soto, MD
DHR Health Heart Institute
A heart attack is usually caused by the rupture atherosclerotic plaque, or a cholesterol plaque, that has formed in one of the heart arteries. This plaque usually occurs because of multiple risk factors. Some are frequently seen and very prevalent, such as hypertension, which is easily treatable and has medication options that can help keep this well controlled. Hypertension is a very important risk factor, not only for heart attacks, but also for heart failure, irregular heart rhythms and strokes. That said it is very important to control hypertension by going to routine visits with your family physician. Your family physician can request blood tests to check your cholesterol level and help you create a plan for your heart health. High cholesterol is another risk factor for the development of these plaques and heart attacks. Just like with hypertension, there are very effective medications to bring these levels down.
Signs and symptoms of a heart attack can vary. The typical symptom that the patient will present to their doctor or at an emergency facility is complaining of severe chest pressure, tightness and heaviness. Some people describe it as an elephant sitting on your chest. It is usually associated with symptoms of nausea, vomiting, sweats, and shortness of breath. Normally the pain is located in the center of your chest, but it may travel down to the left arm, back and jaw. In some cases, patients may not experience any of these symptoms, for instance, women tend to have atypical presentation, with less severe pain, some tingling, sharp discomfort, and a little pressure. Sometimes, it’s not in the chest, but in the back, the arm, or in the jaw. Sometimes patients will complain of symptoms of nausea, indigestion or a feeling that they ate something that didn’t sit well – and ignore the symptoms thinking that it is a stomach situation and not a heart attack. It is very important to recognize these early symptoms, especially if you are someone who is at risk.
Diabetes increases your risk of developing cardiovascular disease, even when controlled. If not properly controlled, diabetes can lead to significant heart damage. To help manage diabetes, we strongly recommend making lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, exercise, maintaining a healthy weight and taking medications as prescribed. If you have diabetes it is important to work with your physician to help you manage and control any risk factors you can prevent.
Smoking is a terrible habit, which is one of the modifiable risk factors for this disease. We always encourage our patients to stop smoking, and there are medications and several aides to help us achieve these goals together. Weight loss and exercise can make a significant difference in lowering someone’s risk of heart attack. While achievable, these life style changes can be very challenging for patients, so we work with our patients to create a plan and ensure that they are encouraged along the way. Ultimately, we all should be doing some exercise, like walking, for at least 30 minutes, five days a week. They say whoever does that lives longer and lives better!
If you or a loved one is experiencing chest pain or shortness of breath and would like to schedule a consultation to speak to one of our experts about your symptoms, please call DHR Health Heart Institute at (956) 682-1888.